A United Nations committee is meeting in Paris to work on a proposed landmark treaty to bring an end to global plastic pollution.
However, there is little agreement yet on what the outcome should be for the Intergovernmental Negotiating Committee for Plastics.
The body is charged with developing the first international, legally binding treaty on plastic pollution, including in the marine environment.
This is the second of five meetings due to take place to complete the negotiations by the end of 2024.
At the first meeting, held six months ago in Uruguay, some countries pressed for global mandates, some for national solutions, and others for both.
Humanity produces more than 430 million tonnes of plastic annually, two-thirds of which are short-lived products that soon become waste, filling the ocean and, often, working their way into the human food chain, the United Nations Environment Programme said in April.
Plastic waste produced globally is set to almost triple by 2060, with about half ending up in landfill and under a fifth recycled, according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development.
Because it is a short timeline for treaty negotiations, experts say it is critical that decisions are made about the objectives at this meeting.
The treaty could focus on human health and the environment, as desired by the self-named “high ambition coalition” of countries, led by Norway and Rwanda, with limits on plastic production and restrictions on some of the chemicals used in plastics, for example.
The coalition is committed to an international, legally binding instrument to end plastic pollution by 2040. It says that this is necessary to protect human health and the environment while helping to restore biodiversity and curb climate change.
Alternatively, the treaty could have a more limited scope to address plastic waste and scale up recycling, as some of the plastic-producing and oil and gas exporters want.
Most plastic is made from fossil fuels. Countries supporting this plan include the United States, Saudi Arabia and China.
The US delegation in Uruguay said national plans would allow governments to prioritise the most important sources and types of plastic pollution.
Many plastics and chemical companies want this approach, too, with a plastic waste treaty that prioritises recycling.
The International Council of Chemical Associations, the World Plastics Council, the American Chemistry Council and other companies that make, use and recycle plastics say they want an agreement that eliminates plastic pollution while “retaining the societal benefits of plastics”.
They are calling themselves the “global partners for plastics circularity”.
They say that modern plastic materials are used around the world to create essential and often life-saving products, many of which are critical to a lower-carbon, more sustainable future.
Bjorn Beeler is at the meeting as the international coordinator for the International Pollutants Elimination Network (Ipen).
He said countries need to make a plan by the end of this week to write up an initial draft of the treaty text so it can be negotiated at the third meeting.
“If there’s no text to negotiate, you’re just continuing to share ideas,” he said. “Then because of the timeline, we could be looking at an early failure.”
Mr Beeler said the talks are “the once-in-a-lifetime opportunity for a global conversation to change the trajectory of plastic production growth”.
Ipen wants a treaty that restricts chemicals used to make plastic that are harmful to human health and the environment, he added.